Historic Period of Racial Injustice and Terror Provide Backdrop to Evangelina Takes Flight Sequel

Texas Rangers with Corpses

The excerpt below from the Refusing to Forget non-profit organization highlights a little known period of racial terror in US history perpetrated by ordinary citizens and law enforcement against Mexicans and Mexican-Americans. Their revealing, award-winning work provides the historical backdrop for the Evangelina Takes Flight sequel I am currently writing.

Follow Refusing to Forget on Facebook.

Sequel Book Blurb:

In 1915 southeast Texas, 17-year old Evangelina de León is falsely accused of murder and awaits trial in a court known for racial injustice. A Mexican-American civil rights organization joins Evangelina in pursuit of the truth in a high stakes battle between an acquittal or the gallows.

Some of the worst racial violence in United States history took place along the Mexico-Texas border from 1910 to 1920

The dead included women and men, the aged and the young, long-time residents and recent arrivals. They were killed by strangers, by neighbors, by vigilantes and at the hands of local law enforcement officers and the Texas Rangers. Some were summarily executed after being taken captive, or shot under the flimsy pretext of trying to escape. Some were left in the open to rot, others desecrated by being burnt, decapitated, or tortured by means such as having beer bottles rammed into their mouths. Extralegal executions became so common that a San Antonio reporter observed that “finding of dead bodies of Mexicans, suspected for various reasons of being connected with the troubles, has reached a point where it creates little or no interest. It is only when a raid is reported or an American is killed that the ire of the people is aroused.”

Terror spread far beyond the ranks of those killed. “One or more of us may have incurred the displeasure of some one, and it seems only necessary for that some one to whisper our names to an officer, to have us imprisoned and killed without an opportunity to prove in a fair trial, the falsity of the charges against us,” pleaded residents of Kingsville in a telegram to President Woodrow Wilson in 1916. “[S]ome of us who sign this petition, may be killed without even knowing the name of him who accuses. Our privileged denunciators may continue their infamous proceedings — answerable to no one.”

Far from being surreptitious, the violence was welcomed, celebrated, and even instigated at the highest levels of society and government. As thousands fled to Mexico and decapitated bodies floated down the Rio Grande, one Texas paper spoke of “a serious surplus population that needs eliminating.” Prominent politicians proposed putting all those of Mexican descent into “concentration camps” – and killing any who refused. For a decade, people would come across skeletons in the south Texas brush, marked with execution-style bullet holes in the backs of their skulls.

If you’d like to learn more, the Refusing to Forget founders’ own work can be found here.

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Recipe – Vegetarian Burrito Bowl

Of all the recipes I’ve posted here, the recipe for Mexican fideo gets the most views. Chile verde with pork and authentic Mexican tacos are the runners up. Fideo is a dish I grew up eating and frequently make for my own family (with tortillas, frijoles and guacamole). Oh, how I love authentic Mexican food – the stuff of my childhood.

My husband, Russ, and I recently started making something new for dinner: layered dinner bowls with healthy, whole ingredients. The possibilities are endless – Asian-inspired, Pacific Northwest-inspired and Mediterranean-inspired are a few examples.

I found this recipe for a burrito bowl in America’s Test Kitchen “Just Add Sauce” cookbook which I highly recommend. Of course, Russ and I tweaked the recipe quite a bit, as we always do. The finished product is filling and filled with nutritious ingredients.

BROWN RICE

  • 1 1/2 long grain brown rice, water as directed on package
  • 6 T olive oil
  • 3 T lime juice,
  • 2 t ground cumin,
  • 1 t ground coriander
  • 1/2 t salt, pepper to taste

BLACK BEANS

  • 2 T olive oil
  • 1/2 large yellow/sweet onion, diced1 t diced garlic2 cans black beans, drained & rinsed
  • 1/2 C chicken broth
  • salt/pepper to taste
  • 1/2 t ground cumin

ROASTED CORN AND POBLANO PEPPERS

  • 3 ears fresh corn
  • 1 large can diced mild green chilis

AVOCADO DRESSING

  • 1 C sour cream
  • 1 fresh avocado
  • 1 T crushed garlic or 1/2 t garlic powder
  • juice of 3 limes
  • 1 c thoroughly rinsed/cleaned, chopped fresh cilantro (leave it out if you don’t like the taste)
  • 1 t ground cumin
  • salt, pepper to taste

CONDIMENTS – CHOOSE ANY OR ALL THAT YOU LIKE

  • prepared red or green Mexican salsa
  • halved cherry tomatoes
  • shredded Mexican cheese
  • diced green onions
  • wedges of fresh lime
  • chopped cilantro (thoroughly washed to remove dirt)

INSTRUCTIONS:

RICE:

  • Cook the brown rice as instructed on the package.
  • While the rice is cooking, whisk oil, lime juice and spices together.
  • Drizzle liquid ingredients over cooked rice, fluff with a fork to mix in; set aside. Do not put a lid on the rice at this stage or it will continue to cook and get mushy.

BEANS:

  • Coat the bottom of a medium-sized skillet or pot with olive oil and heat on medium-high heat.
  • Add diced onion and garlic and stir until translucent.
  • Add beans, chicken broth and spices. Stir to combine.
  • Cover and turn off.

CORN & GREEN CHILI:

  • Put oven rack on 2nd shelf from the top. Set oven to broil setting.
  • Remove husk and strings, wash, dry, set side by side on cookie sheet.
  • Put cookie sheet under broiler and watch carefully.
  • When corn kernels turn golden/brown/blackish, rotate corn using long tongs. Continue until all sides of the corn are roasted.
  • Set aside until cooled.
  • When cooled, use sharp paring knife to cut kernels off each cob. (short video included with tips for doing this)
  • Stir corn and green chilis together in bowl.

DRESSING:

Combine all ingredients in a blender and blend until smooth adding salt & pepper to taste. (If you dislike cilantro, you can leave it out.)

ASSEMBLE THE BOWLS TO YOUR LIKING & EAT!

  1. brown rice
  2. black beans
  3. corn/chilis
  4. avocado dressing
  5. optional condiments as desired

 

 

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What’s El Día de los Muertos? It’s Not Scary, and It’s Not Halloween

Dia de los Muertos Dancer

A dancer performs at the Calpulli Mexican Dance Company’s annual “Dia de los Muertos” production. Photo by Kristin Slaby

Ran into this article by Kristina Puga on the CBS News Latino website. For those who aren’t familiar with Día de los Muertos or who think it’s Mexican Halloween, you might want to read it.

There seems to be a growing interest in Día de los Muertos, maybe because of the Disney movie Coco? Or my personal favorite animated feature on the subject, The Book of Life? The somewhat predictable American result? A retail bonanza: sugar skull cupcakes, framed prints, greeting cards, temporary tattoos, decorative socks, knit caps, Halloween death mask makeup kits – you name it, it’s out there.

I am American-born of Mexican, Lebanese and English descent, but in my heart, I am equal parts American and Mexican. While Mexican culture was a strong influence in my life, my family only celebrated American holidays. We did not celebrate Día de los Muertos, but I like the idea of it. I think of my loved ones who’ve passed often, but it seems like a good idea to slow down and really HONOR them and the memories they left us. What lessons did they teach us? What legacy did they leave that touches us today? What stories about them do we want to share with the next generation?

In presentations about Evangelina Takes Flight, I speak about the 3 deaths in Mexican folklore – the 1st of which is when your heart stops beating and your body ceases to function, the 2nd of which is when your body is consigned to the grave, and the 3rd and final death is when people no longer remember you – when they stop saying your name.

Día de los Muertos means your loved ones will never suffer the cruel fate of that 3rd death. It’s not a scary holiday. It’s a celebration of those we’ve loved and lost. Isn’t that beautiful?

PS: The Book of Life is a little wonky/different, but it’s shockingly creative, funny and the animation is fantastic!

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Fifty-nine

Sometimes, you just have to write what you feel.

September 14, 2019

Fifty-nine
Today you would have been
fifty-nine

I might have teased you

Practically six decades
I would have said

I can’t remember
if I called to wish you well
the day of your birth
in that final and forty-eighth year

I hope I did

A sister’s grief
is clear
as a threatening sky
A heavy blanket of gray
with a hole here and there
for the tears to fall through

We were never close
you and I

But
what if

I’d tried harder
to be the sister you needed

Could we ever have been friends
You my protector and wise counsel
Me a good listener with a sunny disposition

We were never close and
all that’s left
is a cloud of regret

heavy with
what should have been

Questions about what
could have been

about why you left us
without an occasion to ever again
wish you
a happy birthday

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Writing, Revising and Disappearing Letters

keyboard

Trying to get traction on the Evangelina Takes Flight sequel. While out on leave of absence due to foot surgery, I wrote 11 chapters in 2 1/2 weeks, which for me, felt almost miraculous. Since returning to work, I haven’t written any new chapters, just revised the old ones.

Hrrrmmmph! I think it’s time to stop revising (which can be a never-ending and maddening yet necessary process) and start creating again!

Here is an excerpt from one of the early chapters, in case you’re interested:

Not five minutes before I was ordered to get out, she squeezed my hand and called me a ‘godsend.’ All signs indicated a normal delivery. Doctor Morley, a man I had never seen until that day, delivered the baby boy and was present at the mother’s the death. I didn’t know until the next day when Sheriff Pearl arrived. You are hereby under arrest for witchcraft and the murder of Ramona Healy. My terrified family could do nothing but beg for an explanation and insist that it must be a mistake as he handcuffed and loaded me into the windowless police wagon and set off for the county jail. I heard my nine-year old brother, Tomás, running behind us, screaming my name. When the sound of his voice trailed off, the clip clop of the horse’s hooves, and the pounding of my heart joined together in terrifying rhythm.

PS: Can you tell which of the keys on this keyboard I use most?

PSS: I’ll probably revise the above numerous times before it goes to my publisher!

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Immersive & Experiential Learning

experiential learning

Passing along an excellent article I got wind of from my publisher, Arte Público Press. The article, by Tom Vander Ark in Forbes, chronicles the move from competencies that enable students to pass standardized tests to “immersive and experiential learning, strong guidance, a focus on success skills and becoming a contributing citizen.”

I’m no education expert, but in my view, as a mother, grandmother and YA author, this is exactly where we should be going.

 

 

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The Massacre at Porvenir

Texas Rangers

I am now busy researching and writing the sequel to Evangelina Takes Flight.  One part of history I am learning more about is the frequent and sometimes state-sanctioned barbarism and murder perpetrated against Mexicans and Mexican-Americans between 1910-1920. This article from the Associated Press characterizes the massacre in Porvenir, Texas in 1918 and many other instances of torture, lynching and terror.

MEXICAN-AMERICANS FACED RACIAL TERROR FROM 1910-1920

For more information, please go to Refusing to Forget. From their homepage:

Between 1910 and 1920 ethnic Mexicans living on the Texas-Mexico border were targets of state-sanctioned violence. Although historians estimate that several thousand Mexican nationals and American citizens were killed, this period of violence has received little public attention.
Refusing to Forget, an educational non-profit, hopes that in bringing public awareness to this often forgotten period, we can also raise the profile of a struggle for justice and civil rights that continues to influence social relationships today.

—————————————————————————————————————————————–

And, speaking of the sequel, it will more definitively be young adult than middle grade. The massacre of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans will be part of the story’s political backdrop. From chapter 1:

It’s been almost four years since we arrived in Seneca, hopeful but scared. Scared for my older sister, brother-in-law and grandfather whom we left behind, scared about what life in America would hold for us, scared about how the Anglos would treat us.

I loved my stable, predictable life in Mariposa and would have lived there forever, if it had not been so dangerous to stay.

 But, if we hadn’t come here, I never would have met Doctor Taylor or Selim.

And, I wouldn’t be in the Haller County Jail accused of murder.

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Sequel!

LunaI had foot surgery recently and have been laid up almost completely – no pressure on the foot for 4 weeks. Given that I’ll be in this rather potato-like state for a while, I decided to hold my breath, make a wish and dive in to an Evangelina Takes Flight sequel.

I’ve had some ideas floating around my head for a sequel but didn’t have enough, or in any order to make for an entire storyline, that is, until I found myself with all this time on my hands (not on my feet).

Writing a historical fiction is a serious commitment due to the amount of research that has to be done on top of the story development and writing itself. Four chapters in and I already love where the story is leading me. And the research – the surprising and illuminating research! There’s at least one thing on every page I have to check into.

The story is set in 1914.

  • When did the position of sheriff become an elected one?
  • When did murder “by degrees” come into being?
  • What kinds of food would have been typical in southwest county jails?
  • Who was the first female Mexican-American doctor in the US and what was her journey to success like?
  • What exactly was happening in the Mexican Revolution that year?
  • Are there any cases in US history of curanderos (or “healers”) from Mexico being tried for witchcraft?
  • What would a smart-looking and not too overdone ladies hat have looked like; what would it have been made of and adorned with?
  • Were there many (if any) female reporters in the newspaper industry and what did they write about?

Evangelina Takes Flight was bestowed with some notable awards due to its historical authenticity, and I pledge to take as much care with the research on the sequel. I have so much to learn, and oh, what fun it will be!

PS: the photo is of Luna (and Diego in the background). They’ve been good company while I recuperate and type, type, type.

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The Raiders are Coming! ~Book Review~

Somehow I missed this review of Evangelina Takes Flight, posted in October 2018 on the site Books YA Love. The *reviewer did an excellent job capturing the suspenseful elements of the novel.

The raiders are coming! Evangelina Takes Flight with her family, by Diana J. Noble (book review)

book cover of Evangelina Takes Flight, by Diana J. Noble, published by Pinata Books | recommended on BooksYALove.com Pancho Villa‘s rebels are coming!
Carry what you can and flee – or be killed!
But refugees aren’t welcomed when they cross into Texas…

So much for 13-year-old Evangelina to cope with now – a girl trying to steal her suitcase on the train (with grandfather’s secret box inside!), store signs in the Texas town that say “No Mexicans” (where can they buy food?), and wondering if they can ever go home to Mexico (is anyone safe there?).

The story is set in 1911, but many things still resonate today in the borderlands.

Book info: Evangelina Takes Flight / Diana J. Noble. Pinata Books/Arte Publico Press, 2017.

My book talk: Pancho Villa and his rebel soldiers are coming? As big sister celebrates her quinceanera before the family flees their northern Mexico rancho, Evangelina worries about little Tomas’ recovering so slowly from a scorpion sting, whether grandfather can travel north with them, what they will find at her aunt’s house in Texas.

By mule wagon, with the men herding their best cattle on another trail, Evangelina’s mother gets the children to the crowded train station, but the journey onward is anything but smooth, and the Texas border town holds no welcome for refugees.

Why is wailing woman La Llorona coming into her dreams?
Will the townspeople’s prejudice keep her and Dr. Taylor from saving lives?
What is in the box grandfather gave her for safekeeping?

Evangelina might even be brave enough to attend the town meeting where rich white people are demanding that only white children can attend the school!

 

*Katy Manck, MLS Librarian-at-large & independent book reviewer recommends great books beyond the bestseller lists, rather than reviewing every YA book she reads.

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Book Review by Romeo Rosales, Jr.

Romeo Rosales, Jr

Thrilled and grateful to see this review of Evangelina Takes Flight by Romeo Rosales, Jr. posted on the Goodreads website. Mr Rosales is the Collections and Acquisitions Librarian at BiblioTech, the only 100% digital library in the country, located in San Antonio, TX. He’s also a contributor for Book Riot and Public Libraries Online, an author, blogger and historian.

“What a great, timely novel by a talented writer. Noble’s novel comes to life and should resonate with readers of all ages. Her cursory exploration of the struggle Mexican families faced during the revolution hit home for me. Although fictional, this book is definitely based off her actual family’s dilemma during the Mexican Revolution: Should we stay or should we go? Being a product of the Rio Grande Valley, a Texas – Mexico border region, I recall hearing stories about families who fled the revolution and settled in Texas towns all along the Rio Grande. Their stories, having been marginalized for too long, deserve to be told. The characters in this story are well-developed and the book reads so well, that it is quite literally hard to put down. This beautiful story of tragedy, love and loss is an important piece of literature that belongs among the pantheon of books of the same topic. I highly recommend this read for all those who have ever wondered, or even considered, the true perplexity of the relationship between Texas and Mexico.”         

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